On April 27, 2011, the U.K. National Institute For Health and Clinical Excellence issued new clinical guidelines regarding the recognition and initial management of ovarian cancer.
On April 27, 2011, the U.K. National Institute For Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) issued new clinical guidelines regarding the recognition and initial management of ovarian cancer.
In the first ever clinical guideline for ovarian cancer, NICE is calling for more initial investigations to take place in primary care settings, such as general practice (GP) surgeries, so that women can be referred to hospital specialists sooner and begin treatment. This guidance updates and replaces recommendation 1.7.4 in Referral guidelines for suspected cancer (NICE clinical guideline 27; published 2005).
NICE also produced a series of tools to help U.K. healthcare professionals put this new guidance into practice, including guidance documents for doctors and patients, podcasts, clinical case scenarios and a slide set. To view a complete list of all NICE-produced guidance materials available to doctors and patients, visit http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG122.
The full text NICE ovarian cancer clinical guidelines are classified under the following six chapter headings:
- Detection in Primary Care
- Establishing the Diagnosis in Primary Care
- Management of Suspected Early (stage I) Ovarian Cancer
- Management of Advanced (stage II-IV) Ovarian Cancer
- Support Needs of Women With Newly Diagnosed Ovarian Cancer
The key priorities identified by NICE for successful implementation of the new ovarian cancer clinical guidelines by primary and secondary healthcare professionals include the topics addressed below.
Awareness of Symptoms & Signs
— Carry out tests in primary care if a woman (especially if 50 or over) reports having any of the following symptoms on a persistent or frequent basis – particularly more than 12 times per month:
- persistent abdominal distension (women often refer to this as “bloating”);
- feeling full (early satiety) and/or loss of appetite;
- pelvic or abdominal pain; and/or
- increased urinary urgency and/or frequency.
— Carry out appropriate tests for ovarian cancer in any woman of 50 or over who has experienced symptoms within the last 12 months that suggest irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), because IBS rarely presents for the first time in women of this age.
Asking the Right Question – First Tests
— Measure serum CA125 in primary care in women with symptoms that suggest ovarian cancer.
— If serum CA125 is 35 IU/ml or greater, arrange an ultrasound scan of the abdomen and pelvis.
— For any woman who has normal serum CA125 (less than 35 IU/ml), or CA125 of 35 IU/ml or greater but a normal ultrasound:
- assess her carefully for other clinical causes of her symptoms and investigate if appropriate; and
- if no other clinical cause is apparent, advise her to return to her general practitioner (GP) if her symptoms become more frequent and/or persistent.
— Calculate a risk of malignancy index I (RMI I) score (after performing an ultrasound) and refer all women with an RMI I score of 250 or greater to a specialist multidisciplinary team.
— Risk of malignancy index I (RMI I): RMI I is a product of the ultrasound scan score (U), menopausal status (M) and serum CA125 level.
— RMI I = U x M x CA125
- The ultrasound result is scored 1 point for each of the following characteristics: multilocular cysts, solid areas, metastases, ascites, and bilateral lesions. U = 0 for an ultrasound score of 0 points, U = 1 for an ultrasound score of 1 point, U = 3 for an ultrasound score of 2–5 points.
- Menopausal status is scored as 1 = pre-menopausal and 3 = post-menopausal. The classification of “post-menopausal” is a woman who has had no period for more than 1 year or a woman over 50 who has had a hysterectomy.
- Serum CA125 is measured in IU/ml.
— If offering cytotoxic chemotherapy to women with suspected advanced ovarian cancer, first obtain a confirmed tissue diagnosis by histology (or by cytology if histology is not appropriate) in all but exceptional cases.
The Role of Systematic Retroperitoneal Lymphadenectomy
— Do not include systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (block dissection of lymph nodes from the pelvic side walls to the level of the renal veins) as part of standard surgical treatment in women with suspected ovarian cancer whose disease appears to be confined to the ovaries (that is, who appear to have stage I disease).
Adjuvant Systemic Chemotherapy For Stage I Disease
— Do not offer adjuvant chemotherapy to women who have had optimal surgical staging and have low-risk stage I disease ([tumor] grade 1 or 2, stage Ia or Ib).
Support Needs of Women with Newly Diagnosed Ovarian Cancer
— Offer all women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer information about their disease, including psychosocial and psychosexual issues, that:
- is available at the time they want it;
- includes the amount of detail that they want and are able to deal with; and
- is in a suitable format, including written information.
Source: Ovarian cancer: the recognition and initial management of ovarian cancer (CG122), Full Guideline, National Institute For Health & Clinical Excellence (NICE), U.K. National Health Service (NHS), April 2011.
- Women should be offered a blood test for ovarian cancer, Press Release, National Institute For Health & Clinical Excellence (NICE), U.K. National Health Service (NHS), April 27, 2011.
- Improved testing for ovarian cancer could save lives, Press Release, National Institute For Health & Clinical Excellence (NICE), U.K. National Health Service (NHS), April 26, 2011.
- New guidance is published on the symptoms of ovarian cancer, Press Release, Target Ovarian Cancer, April 27, 2011.