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Dana-Farber Researchers “OncoMap” The Way To Personalized Treatment For Ovarian Cancer

Posted by Paul Cacciatore on November 16, 2010

Researchers have shown that point mutations – mis-spellings in a single letter of genetic code – that drive the onset and growth of cancer cells can be detected successfully in advanced ovarian cancer using a technique called OncoMap. The finding opens the way for personalized medicine in which every patient could have their tumor screened, specific mutations identified, and the appropriate drug chosen to target the mutation and halt the growth of their cancer.

Researchers have shown that point mutations – mis-spellings in a single letter of genetic code – that drive the onset and growth of cancer cells can be detected successfully in advanced ovarian cancer using a technique called OncoMap. The finding opens the way for personalized medicine in which every patient could have their tumor screened, specific mutations identified, and the appropriate drug chosen to target the mutation and halt the growth of their cancer.

Using mass spectrometry for identifying the genetic make-up of cancer cells, OncoMap can determine the point mutations in tumors by utilizing a large panel of over 100 known cancer-causing genes (referred to as “oncogenes“). In the work to be presented today (Wednesday) at the 22nd EORTC-NCI-AACR [1] Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics in Berlin, researchers will describe how they used OncoMap to identify oncogene mutations in tumor samples obtained from women with advanced high-grade serous ovarian cancer. [2] Earlier in the year 76 mutations in 26 different genes had been found but, since then, further work in more tumor samples has found more.

Ursula A. Matulonis, M.D., Medical Director, Gynecologic Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; Associate Professor, Medicine, Harvard Medical School

Dr. Ursula Matulonis, director/program leader in medical gynecologic oncology at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute located in Boston, Massachusetts (USA) and Associate Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, will tell the meeting:

“Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal of all the gynecologic malignancies, and new treatments are needed for both newly diagnosed patients as well as patients with recurrent cancer. The success of conventional chemotherapy has reached a plateau, and new means of characterizing ovarian cancer so that treatment can be personalized are needed.

We know that many human cancers have point mutations in certain oncogenes, and that these mutations can cause cancer cells to have a dependence on just one overactive gene or signalling pathway for the cancer cell’s growth and survival – a phenomenon known as ‘oncogene addiction’. If the mutation that causes the oncogene addiction can be inhibited, then it seems that this often halts the cancer process. Examples of mutations that are successfully inhibited by targeted drugs are HER2 (for which trastuzumab [Herceptin®] is used in breast cancer), EGFR (erlotinib [Tarceva®] in lung cancer) and c-kit (imatinib [Gleevec®] in chronic myeloid leukemia). So if we know the status of specific genes in a tumor, then this enables us to choose specific treatments that are likely to work successfully against the cancer.”

Dr Matulonis and her colleagues used OncoMap to investigate the mutation status of high-grade serous ovarian tumors that were known not to be caused by inherited mutations in the BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 genes. They found mutations previously identified to be involved in ovarian cancer: KRAS, BRAF, CTNNB1 and PIK3CA. The KRAS and PIK3CA mutations were the most common, while BRAF was more rare. The researchers also identified a low frequency of mutations in many other different oncogenes.

Dr. Matulonis further noted:

“This study shows that it’s feasible to use OncoMap to identify whether a patient’s tumor has a mutation in an oncogene for which a known drug is available to target that specific gene, so as to enable us to place her on a clinical study of that drug; for instance, XL147 or GDC-0941 are inhibitors for the P13kinase mutation that are in clinical trials at present.  In addition, someone’s cancer could harbor a mutation (such as ALK) that is not known to be associated with ovarian cancer or has not yet been studied in ovarian cancer – these patients could be matched with a drug that inhibits that protein too. As new drugs get developed, this information would be used to match future drugs with patients and their cancers.”

The researchers hope that OncoMap will become a clinical test for all cancer patients at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute before long, so that the genetic information obtained can be used to choose the best treatment for them.

Dr. Matulonis said:

“At present, only a few targeted therapies are being used for newly diagnosed ovarian cancer and most are being used to treat recurrent ovarian cancer, but this will change eventually. I have already referred several of our patients who are either newly diagnosed or have recurrent cancer and who have mutations (one with KRAS and one with PIK3CA) to our phase I program for drugs studies specific to these mutations.  For ovarian cancer, understanding mutational analysis is one piece of the genetic puzzle. Our group will also start looking for chromosomal and gene amplifications and deletions in patients’ tumors, which we know are important for ovarian cancer.”

Matulonis believes that OncoMap and other similar analytical tools will become mainstream practice in all cancer clinics before long. Tools for detecting genes with the incorrect numbers of copies or abnormal expression will also help doctors to choose the best treatment for individual patients.”

Source: Researchers map the way to personalised treatment for ovarian cancer, Abstract no: 35. Oral presentation in plenary session 2.  22nd EORTC-NCI-AACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics, Berlin, Germany, November 16- 19, 2010.

References:

[1] EORTC [European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, NCI [National Cancer Institute], AACR [American Association for Cancer Research].

[2] The study was funded by the Madeline Franchi Ovarian Cancer Research Fund, twoAM Fund and the Sally Cooke Ovarian Cancer Research Fund.

Related Information:

Posted in Conferences, Discoveries, Genetics, Medical Study Results, Meeting Highlights, Pipeline Drugs | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

UCLA Researchers Significantly Inhibit Growth of Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines With FDA-Approved Leukemia Drug Dasatinib (Sprycel®)

Posted by Paul Cacciatore on November 11, 2009

The drug dasatinib (Sprycel®), approved for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in patients with specific types of leukemia, significantly inhibited the growth and invasiveness of ovarian cancer cells and also promoted their death, say UCLA researchers in the November 10th issue of the British Journal of Cancer. The drug, when paired with a chemotherapy regimen, was even more effective in fighting ovarian cancer cell lines in which signaling of the Src family kinases — associated with approximately one-third of ovarian cancers– is activated. Clinical trials that involve the testing of dasatinib against ovarian cancer and solid tumors are currently ongoing.

Researchers affiliated with the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Mayo Clinic and Harvard Medical School announced that they have established a biological rationale to support the clinical study of the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA)-approved leukemia drug dasatinib (U.S. brand name: Sprycel®), either alone or in combination with chemotherapy, in patients with ovarian cancer. The study appears in the November 10th edition of the British Journal of Cancer.

Background

Dasatinib is an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Dasatinib is a small-molecule inhibitor that targets several tyrosine kinases, including the Src kinase family, Ephrin type-A receptor 2 ( EphA2) , and the focal adhesion kinase (FAK).

Src is the prototypic member of a family of nine non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src, Lyn, Fyn, Lck, Hck, Fgr, Blk, Yrk, and Yes). The Src family kinase (SFK) proteins regulate four main cellular fuctions that ultimately control the behavior of transformed cancer cells:  cell proliferation, adhesion, invasion, and motility.

Eph receptors and ephrins are integral players in cancer formation and progression, and are associated with advanced ovarian cancer and poor clinical outcome.

FAK is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the regulation of cell adhesion, survival, and migration.  Preclinical studies indicate that FAK plays a signficant role in ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion.

Dasatinib Study Methodology & Findings

slamon1

One of the dasatinib study authors is Dennis J. Slamon, M.D. Ph.D. Dr. Slamon is the Director of Clinical/Translational Research & Director of the Revlon/UCLA Women's Cancer Research Program, at the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center. He is also the co-discoverer of Herceptin®, a targeted therapy that revolutionized the treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer.

The researchers carried out the study by testing the effects of dasatinib on human ovarian cancer cells in vitro, using a panel of 34 established human ovarian cancer cell lines.  The 34 cell lines selected were representative of the major epithelial ovarian cancer subtypes:

On this basis, the researchers examined the effects of dasatinib on ovarian tumor cell proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, and cell-cycle arrest.  To more fully understand the activity of dasatinib, the researchers also studied the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs (i.e., carboplatin and paclitaxel) in combination with dasatinib against ovarian cancer cells that were previously determined to be dasatinib-sensitive.

The overarching goals of the study were (i) to provide a rationale to test dasatinib as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapy in patients with ovarian cancer, and (ii) to identify molecular markers that may help define subsets of ovarian cancer patients most likely to benefit from treatment with dasatinib.

Significant findings reported in the dasatinib study are summarized below.

  • Concentration-dependent, anti-proliferative effects of dasatinib were seen in all ovarian cancer cell lines tested.
  • Dasatinib significantly inhibited tumor cell invasion, and induced tumor cell death, but was less effective in causing tumor cell-cycle arrest.
  • At a wide range of clinically achievable drug concentrations, additive and synergistic interactions were observed for dasatinib plus carboplatin or paclitaxel.
  • 24 out of 34 (71%) representative ovarian cancer cell lines were highly sensitive (i.e.,  ≥ 60% growth inhibition) to dasatinib.
  • 6 cells lines were moderately sensitive (i.e., 40% – 59% growth inhibition) to dasatinib.
  • 4 cell lines were resistant (i.e., < 40% growth inhibition) to dasatinib.
  • When comparing dasatinib sensitivity between cell lines based solely upon histological subtype (i.e., serous papillary, clear cell, endometrioid, mucinous, and undifferentiated ovarian cancer cell lines), no single histological subtype was more sensitive than another.
  • Ovarian cancer cell lines with high expression of Yes, Lyn, Eph2A, caveolin-1 and 2, moesin, annexin-1 and 2 and uPA (urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator), as well as those with low expression of IGFBP2 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2), were particularly sensitive to dasatinib.
  • Ovarian cancer cell lines with high expression of HER-2 (Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2), VEGF (Vascular endothelial growth factor) and STAT3 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3) were correlated with in vitro resistance to dasatinib.

Based upon the findings above, the researchers concluded that there is a clear biological rationale to support the clinical study of dasatinib, as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapy, in patients with ovarian cancer.

Konecny

Gottfried E. Konecny, M.D., UCLA Assistant Professor of Hematology/Oncology, UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center Researcher & First Author of the Dasatinib Study

Ovarian cancer, which will strike 21,600 women this year and kill 15,500, causes more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. Few effective therapies for ovarian cancer exist, so it would be advantageous for patients if a new drug could be found that fights the cancer, said Gottfried E. Konecny, M.D., a UCLA assistant professor of hematology/oncology, a Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center researcher, and first author of the study.

“I think Sprycel® could be a potential additional drug for treating patients with Src dependent ovarian cancer,” Konecny said. “It is important to remember that this work is only on cancer cell lines, but it is significant enough that it should be used to justify clinical trials to confirm that women with this type of ovarian cancer could benefit.”

Recent gene expression studies have shown that approximately one-third of women have ovarian cancers with activated Src pathways, so the drug could potentially help 7,000 ovarian cancer patients every year. Notably, a gene expression study published in 2007 reported Src activation in approximately 50% of the ovarian cancer tumors examined.

In the dasatinib study, the UCLA team tested the drug against 34 ovarian cancer cell lines and conducted genetic analysis of those lines. Through these actions, the researchers were able to identify genes that predict response to dasatinib. If the work is confirmed in human studies, it may be possible to test patients for Src activation and select those who would respond prior to treatment, thereby personalizing their care.

“We were able to identify markers in the pre-clinical setting that would allow us to predict response to Sprycel®,” Konecny said. “These may help us in future clinical trials in selecting patients for studies of the drug.”

Dasatinib is referred to as a “dirty” kinase inhibitor, meaning it inhibits more than one cellular pathway. Konecny said it also inhibits the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and ephrin receptor, also associated with ovarian cancer, in addition to the Src cellular pathway.

The next step, Konecny said, would be to test the drug on women with ovarian cancer in a clinical trial. The tissue of responders would then be analyzed to determine if the Src and other pathways were activated. If that is confirmed, it would further prove that dasatinib could be used to fight ovarian cancer. In studies, women would be screened before entering a trial and only those with Src dependent cancers could be enrolled to provide further evidence, Konecny said, much like the studies of the molecularly targeted breast cancer drug Herceptin® enrolled only women who had HER-2 positive disease.

“Herceptin® is different because we knew in advance that it only worked in women with HER-2 [gene] amplification,” he said. “In this case, we don’t clearly know that yet. The data reassures us that the drug works where the targets are over-expressed but we need more testing to confirm this.”

The tests combining the drug with chemotherapy are significant because chemotherapy, namely carboplatin and paclitaxel, is considered the standard first line treatment for ovarian cancer patients following surgery. Because dasatinib proved to have a synergistic effect when combined with chemotherapy, it may be possible to add this targeted therapy as a first line treatment if its efficacy is confirmed in future studies.

Dasatinib Study Significance

The dasatinib study is potentially significant to the area of ovarian cancer treatment for several reasons.

First, although this study only tested dasatinib in vitro against ovarian cancer cell lines, the drug is already FDA-approved.  Accordingly, the general safety of the drug has already been established by the FDA.

Second, 71% of the ovarian cancer lines were highly sensitive to dasatinib.

Third, dasatinib was additive to, or synergistic with, the standard of care chemotherapy drugs used in first line ovarian cancer treatment, i.e., carboplatin and paclitaxel.

Fourth, the study established molecular markers that may be predictive of dasatinib effectiveness in particular patients.  In theory, a patient’s tumor biopsy could be tested for the presence of those molecular markers to determine whether a patient will benefit from dasatinib.

Fifth, one of the dasatinib study authors is Dennis J. Slamon, M.D. Ph.D. Dr. Slamon is the director of Clinical/Translational Research, and director of the Revlon/UCLA Women’s Cancer Research Program, at the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center. Dr. Slamon is also the co-discoverer of Herceptin®, a targeted therapy that revolutionized the treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer.  Herceptin® is a targeted therapy that kills HER-2 positive breast cancer cells while leaving normal cells unaffected.  The potential use of dasatinib to treat select ovarian cancer patients who test “positive” for specific molecular markers (e.g., Src cellular pathway activation) is similar to the extremely successful drug development approach used for Herceptin®.

Open Clinical Trials Testing Dasatinib (Sprycel®) Against Ovarian Cancer & Solid Tumors

As of this writing, there are several open (i.e., recruiting) clinical trials that involve testing dasatinib against ovarian cancer and solid tumors.

For a list of open clinical trials that involve testing dasatinib against ovarian cancer, CLICK HERE.

For a list of open clinical trials that involve testing dasatinib against solid tumors, CLICK HERE.

All potential volunteers must satisfy the clinical trial entrance criteria prior to enrollment.  Depending on the drug combination being tested, one or more of the solid tumor clinical trials may not be appropriate for an ovarian cancer patient.

About the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center

UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (JCCC) has more than 240 researchers and clinicians engaged in disease research, prevention, detection, control, treatment and education. One of the nation’s largest comprehensive cancer centers, JCCC is dedicated to promoting research and translating basic science into leading-edge clinical studies. In July 2009, JCCC was named among the top 12 cancer centers nationwide by U.S. News & World Report, a ranking it has held for 10 consecutive years. For more information on JCCC, visit the website at http://www.cancer.ucla.edu.

Sources:

Posted in Biomarker, Chemotherapy, Discoveries, Medical Study Results, Molecular Diagnostics, Novel Therapies, Preclinical Testing, Targeted Therapies | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments »

To Fight Cancer, Know The Enemy

Posted by Paul Cacciatore on August 24, 2009

An Op-Ed entitled “To Fight Cancer, Know the Enemy” was published in The New York Times on August 6, 2009.  The author of the Op-Ed was James D. Watson, Ph.D.  James Watson co-discovered the DNA double helix structure; a discovery for which he received the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. In the article, Watson states his belief that beating cancer is now a realistic ambition, and he makes several suggestions designed to ensure that victory.

On August 6, 2009, an Op-Ed entitled To Fight Cancer, Know the Enemy was published in The New York Times (NYT).  The author of the article was James D. Watson, Ph.D. James Watson co-discovered the DNA double helix structure; a discovery for which he received the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.  Dr. Watson is the Chancellor Emeritus of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, and is generally considered the father of molecular biology. Throughout most of his career, James Watson’s novel scientific ideas generated great controversy among, and resistance from, many members of the scientific community.  The suggestions posed by James Watson in his August 6th NYT Op-Ed are likely no exception.

Watson begins the Op-Ed by suggesting an ambitious, yet optimistic, goal in the area of cancer research:

“The National Cancer Institute, which has overseen American efforts on researching and combating cancers since 1971, should take on an ambitious new goal for the next decade:  the development of new drugs that will provide lifelong cures for many, if not all, major cancers.  Beating cancer now is a realistic ambition because, at long last, we largely know its true genetic and chemical characteristics. …”

James D. Watson

James D. Watson, Ph.D. is the Chancellor Emeritus of the world-renowned Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Dr. Watson co-discovered DNA's double helix structure; a discovery for which he received the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. In an Op-Ed published in the New York Times on August 6, 2009, Dr. Watson states: "...Beating cancer now is a realistic ambition because, at long last, we largely know its true genetic and chemical characteristics."

Despite President Nixon’s declaration of  war on cancer in 1971, Watson states that the goal of “beating cancer” was not possible prior to the year 2000, because researchers did not possess the necessary scientific understanding of cancer molecular biology. Extensive details about specific cancers only became known after the 2003 completion of the Human Genome Project, says Watson. Researchers have identified most of the major cellular pathways through which cancer-inducing signals move through cells, and Watson notes that 20 or so signal-blocking drugs are in human clinical testing. By way of example, Watson highlights the breast cancer drug Herceptin, which is used to fight an aggressive form of breast cancer. Herceptin was approved initially by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) in 1998, and today represents the standard of care in treating so-called “HER-2 positive” breast cancer.

With this scientific background, Dr. Watson outlines several suggested changes to the current U.S. cancer research paradigm. He believes that the various changes listed below will give the nation a fighting chance to win the war on cancer.

Change FDA Regulations To Allow Combination Testing of New Cancer Drugs Which Are Ineffective As Monotherapies.

Noting the lack of new cancer drugs that lead to lifelong cures, Watson explains that there are many types of cancer-causing “genetic drivers” within a single cancer cell. Although an analysis of several cancer genetic drivers may allow a doctor to prescribe more personalized chemotherapy treatments for the patient, Watson believes that use of drugs against one genetic cancer driver would simply lead to the emergence of increasingly destructive second and third drivers due to the inherent genetic instability of cancer cells.  Accordingly, Watson concludes that most anticancer drugs will not reach their full potential unless they are given in combination to shut down multiple cancer genetic drivers within a cancer cell simultaneously.

Dr. Watson, however, is quick to note that current FDA regulations effectively prohibit combination testing of new cancer drugs that, when administered alone, prove ineffective.  Thus, Watson concludes that current FDA regulations must be amended to allow combination testing of new cancer drugs that prove ineffective as monotherapies.

Better Understand The Chemical (Rather Than Genetic) Makeup of Cancer Cells

Dr. Watson believes that researchers should shift the current focus of cancer research away from decoding the genetic characteristics of cancer, and obtain a better understanding of the chemical reactions that occur within cancer cells. This suggestion, Watson explains, is based upon a 1924 discovery made by the German biochemist (and 1931 Nobel Laureate) Otto Warburg.  During experimentation, Warburg observed that cancer cells, irrespective of whether they grow in the presence or absence of oxygen, produce large amounts of lactic acid. Approximately one year ago, the significance of Warburg’s observation was revealed, says Watson. The metabolism of all proliferating cells (including cancer cells) is largely directed toward the synthesis of cellular building blocks from the breakdown of glucose. Based upon this recent discovery, Dr. Watson concludes that glucose breakdown runs faster in growing cells then in differentiated cells (i.e., cells that stop growing and perform specialized functions within the body).

The turbocharged breakdown of glucose in growing cells is attributable to growth-promoting signal molecules that effectively turn up the levels of transporter proteins which move glucose molecules into the cell, explains Watson. With this important discovery in hand, Watson suggests that researchers determine whether new drugs that specifically inhibit the key enzymes involved in the breakdown of glucose can produce an anticancer effect. Because this determination requires a better understanding of the chemical makeup of cancer cells, Watson believes that biochemists (rather than molecular biologists) will again move to the forefront of cancer research.

NCI Should Fund Smaller Biotechnology Companies & Increase Its Funding to Major Research-Oriented Cancer Centers

The next issue addressed by Dr. Watson relates to the lack of funding available to small biotechnology companies, which are generally engaged in highly innovative research. In the past, the requisite funding of these companies was provided by venture capitalists (VCs), Watson notes.  The level of VC funding required by small biotech companies is not currently available due to the severe U.S. economic downturn. To resolve this critical capital funding issue, Watson suggests that the National Cancer Institute (NCI) fund small biotech companies. This action, Watson believes, will allow the biotech companies to move drug discoveries from the laboratory into human clinical testing on an accelerated basis. In tandem with funding small biotech companies, Dr. Watson also requests NCI to increase its funding to major research-oriented cancer centers that engage in “low probability-high payoff” research projects, which are generally turned down by large pharmaceutical and biotech companies.

President Obama Should Appoint A Strong Leader To The Directorship of NCI

In 1971, the U.S. Congress provided the president, rather than the head of the National Institutes of Health, with the authority to appoint the NCI director.  Watson characterizes NCI in his Op-Ed as “an outpost of the White House” that has “… become a largely rudderless ship in dire need of a bold captain who will settle only for total victory.”  To resolve this issue, Dr. Watson advises President Barack Obama to appoint a strong leader, from among the nation’s best cancer researchers, to the directorship of NCI.  As part of this new leadership structure, Watson also recommends that NCI recruit a seasoned pharmaceutical developer who can radically increase the speed of anticancer drug development and human clinical testing.

Application Of Sun Tzu’s Strategies On The Art Of War To Cancer Research

Sun Tzu

A statue of the iconic Chinese military leader Sun Tzu. Sun Tzu wrote the earliest -- and still the most revered -- military treatise in the world. This 6th century BC masterpiece is best known to most of us as "The Art of War."

At the conclusion of his Op-Ed, Watson acknowledges that his views will provoke rebuttals from prominent scientists who believe that it is not the right time to wage war on cancer. Moreover, Watson anticipates that many scientists will recommend that, until victory is more certain, the U.S. should not expend large sums of money on cancer research. Watson admits that money alone will not win the war on cancer, but he emphasizes that victory over cancer will not come ” from biding our time.” As part of the Op-Ed title, Watson uses the phrase “know the enemy;” a phrase commonly attributed to the ancient Chinese military leader Sun Tzu. Sun Tzu wrote the earliest — and still the most revered — military treatise in the world.  This 6th century BC masterpiece is best known to most of us as The Art of War.  The clever use of the phrase “know the enemy” by Dr. Watson may suggest that the enemy is indeed cancer, and perhaps, ourselves as represented by the current U.S. cancer research paradigm.

In chapter III of The Art of War, entitled Attack by Stratagem, Sun Tzu describes the dual knowledge that one must possess to achieve ultimate victory in war:

“…If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle. …”

To follow the advice of James Watson is to better know ourselves and the formidable enemy known as “cancer.” Will Watson’s advice allow us to achieve ultimate victory in the war on cancer? Perhaps. Only time (and appropriate research funding) will tell.

Source: To Fight Cancer, Know The Enemy, by James D. Watson, Op-Ed, The New York Times, August 6, 2009.

Posted in Cancer Research, General, Opinions | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

 
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